born January 29, 1947 Luhamaa, Võru county

Eesti keeles

Estonian University of Life Sciences
 Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering
5 Kreutzwaldi Str.
51 014 Tartu, Estonia
Tel. +372 7 313 171




Senior researcher and lecturer of the Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Estonian University of Life Sciences


Current research program: structure and yield of lingonberry and bilberry populations, cultivation and selection of wild growing berry plants
Academic degree: Cand. biol. sc. (Ph.D.) 1983, Tartu State University, Ph.D. thesis: The analyse of the structure and productivity of cowberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) coenopopulations in the pine forests of Kivach Nature Reserv (Karelia)
Institute of Botany of the Lithuanian Academi of Sciense, Vilnius, 1979–1983; postgraduate study as doctorial student in botany (phytosociology)
Graduated Tartu State University in 1974, biologist, teacher of botany and chemistry
Võru Secondary school No. 1 (1965), teacher of elementary school


Senior researcher, lecturer of the Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering (2005-

Senior researcher, Forest Research Institute, Estonian Agricultural University (Tartu)  (1996--2005)
Senior researcher, Estonian Institute of Forestry and Nature Conservation (Tartu)  (1986–1996)
Junior researcher, Jõgeva Forestry Economic Enterprise (1983–1986)
Junior researcher, Kivatch Nature Reserve, Karelia, Russia( 1980–1983)
Senior lab assistant, Kivach Nature Reserve, Karelia, Russia (1975–980)


Estonian forests (MET 1.2498 4.0+ 2.0 credits)
Forest botany with one week field
courses in June or in July in Järvselja Forest Station. A forest plant herbarium (120 plants) will be collected.


Wild berry resources and cultivation, lectures
+ field courses (MET-1.1782 1.0 credits)

MSc level

Anneli Banner "Vegetative and generative propagation of lingonberry  (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) influenced by trichodermin and some other factors" . Master degree cum laude in horticulture. April 1998
Tea Tasa 
Merrit Noormets "The influence of fertilization on the production of low-bush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.) seedlings on opencast peat pits. Master degree in horticulture. August 2002

Elina Leiner  “Spontaneus revegetation of cutover peatlands in Pärnu and Tartu districts”. Master degree in environmental sciences. August 2005




Estonian Science Fund, grant nr. 6046. Duration 2005–2008. Influence of different cultivation methods on the productivity, crop quality and on the cultivation environment. Breeding of blueberry and lingonberry varieties.

Project of the Academy of Finland no 104940. Poverty alleviation and non-wood forest products: a comparative study of forests, economies and social structures (Project leader prof. Olli Saastamoinen, University of Joensuu).

 ESTAG. Cultivation and selection of lowbush blueberry Vaccinium angustifolium. Duration 2001– 2005. http://www.eau.ee/~agt/mustikas/english.html
Estonian Science Fund, grant nr. 4726. Duration 2001–2004. Cultivation and selection of new berry plants (Rubus arcticus, Vaccinium angustifolium ja Vaccinium corymbosum X Vaccinium angustifolium, Vaccinium vitis-idaea.
Canadian – Estonian joint project. Duration April 1999– April 2002. “ Developing Capacity for the Estonian Wildberry Industry” . Nova Scotia Agricultural College and Estonian Agricultural University, Estonian Berry Association.
Benefits to U.S. Agriculture. Duration Sept. 1998 – Sept. 2000.
Estonian Science Fund, grant nr. 2891. Duration 1997 – 2000. Cultivation and selection of lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea).
Estonian- Finnish joint project. Non-wood forest production in Estonia. Duration 1996–1997. PhD Riho Männi, prof. Olli Saastamoinen (Finland).
Estonian Science Fund, grant nr. 357. Duration 1994–1996.  Forms of lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis – idaea L.) in Estonia: development biology, selection and cultivation.



Paal, T.V., Paal, J. L. 1980. Age structure of aboveground cowberry shoots. – Rastitelnye resursy 16: 32-38. In Russian

Paal, T.V., Paal, J. L. 1980. Cowberry biomass in coenopopulations of the Karelian A.S.S.R. – Rastitelnye resursy 16: 335-344. In Russian

Paal, T.V., Paal, J. L., Kharin, V.N. 1981. Phytogenic field influence on cowberry yield. – Rastitelnye resursy 17: 68-74. In Russian

Paal, T.V., Paal, J. P. 1982. Estimation of wild berries yield. – Rastitelnye resursy 18: 268-273. In Russian

Paal, T. V., Kutenkova, N. N., Martin, M.O. 1982. Pests of cowberry in Karelia. – Rastitelnye resursy 18: 411-417. In Russian

Paal, J. L., Paal, T.V., Kharin, V.N. 1983. Evaluation of stability of Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. yield. – Rastitelnye resursy 19: 118-124. In Russian

Paal, J. L., Paal, T. V. 1984. Aboveground biomass structure of Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. – Rastitelnye resursy 20: 469-478. In Russian

Paal, T. V., Paal, J. L. 1987. Phenology of Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. in the middle taiga subzone, Karelian ASSR. – Rastitelnye resursy 23: 37-46. In Russian

Paal, J. L., Paal, T. V. 1989. Apical increment of Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. ramets. – Rastitelnye resursy 25(1): 42-47. In Russia

Paal, J. L., Paal, T. V., Kolodyazhnyi, S.F. 1989. Horizontal structure of cowberry coenopopulations in the middle taiga subzone, Karelian ASSR. – Rastitelnye resursy 25: 353-365. In Russian

Paal, T. 1988. The structure of South Karelian ( USSR ) cowberry coenopopulations. – Acta Bot. Fennica 136: 27-31.

Paal, T., Paal, J. 1989. Structure of cowberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) coenopopulations.Valgus, Tallinn, 212 lk. In Russian with English summary

Paal, T. 1992. On cultivating European cranberry in Estonia. – Journal of Small Fruit & Viticulture 1: 59-61.

Paal, T. 1992. The investigation and cultivation of Vaccinium species in the Soviet Union. – Journal of Small Fruit & Viticulture 2: 3-8.

Paal, T. 1993. Pests and diseases of the cowberry ( Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.). – Aquilo Ser.Bot. 31: 35-39.

Paal, T., & Paal, J. 1993. Estimation of cowberry ( Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) yields. – Aquilo Ser. Bot. 31: 31-34.

Paal, T. 1998. Utilisation and research of non-wood products in the Former Soviet Union. – EFI Proceedings 23:119-124.

Paal, T., Saastamoinen, O. 1998. Non-wood plant products in Estonian forests. – EFI Proceedings 23:109 - 117.

Paal, T., Banner, A., Möls, T. 1998. Pohlavormide areng kultuuristamisel. – Metsanduslikud Uurimused XXIX: 91 - 99. Development of the lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.)  forms in the culture. In Estonian   with English summary.

Reier, Ü., Paal, T. 1998. Germination of Vaccinium vitis-idaea and Rubus chamaemorus seeds originating from different latitudes. – In: International conference Wild berry culture: an excange of western and Eastern experiences. Tartu, 10 –13 August 1998. – Metsanduslikud uurimused XXX: 147 - 156.

Paal, T. 1999. Metsamarjade ja seente varud ning kasutamine Eestis.- Metsanduslikud uurimused XXXI: 131 – 140. Wild berry and mushrooms resources in Estonia and their exploitation. In Estonian   with English summary.

Paal, T. 1999. Uprava borowki niskiej (Vaccinium angustifolium) w Estonii. – In: Ligocka T.(ed.) Uprawa borowki I zurawiny. P.P.H.U.”Graf-Sad”, Skierniewice, pp. 16 – 19. In Polish.

Paal, T., Banner, A.1999. Propagation of different lingonberry forms. - In: Plant genfund accumulation, evaluation and protection in the botanical gardens. Petro Ofsetas, Vilnius. PP.102 – 104.

Paal, T., Banner, A. 1999. Razmnozhenie brusniki (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.). – In: Trudy simposiuma. III Mezhdunarodny simposium "Novye i netraditsionnye rasteniya i perspektivy ikh ispol'zovaniya.Tom 2. Moskva-Puschino, pp. 421-424. Propagation of lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.). In Russian

Paal, T. 1999. Metsa kõrvalkasutus Eesti metsanduse arengus. – Rmt.-s. Metsandus Eesti kultuuripildis. AS Altex, Tartu. Lk. 16-22. In Estonian

Paal, T. 2000. Cultivation of Vaccinium angustifolium from seed. – In: Problems of rational utilization and reproduction of berry plants in boreal forests on the eve of the XXI century.Proceedings of the international conference, Gomel-Glubokoye, Belarus, NASB, pp. 193-196.

Paal, T., Banner, A. 2000. Differences in germination rate and seedling development in lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) forms. – In: Fruit production and fruit breeding. Proceedings of the international conference. Tartu University Press, Tartu, pp.  248-252.

Paal, T., Liimand, I. 2000. Metsade mitmekesine kasutamine. – Rmt-s.: Aastaraamat Mets 99. Tartu.  Lk. 69-73. In Estonian.

Paal, T. 2002. Dependency of lingonberry seed germinating ability on seed age and storage method – Acta Horticulturae 574: 335-338.

Starast, M., Karp, K., Paal, T. 2002. The effect of using different mulches and growth substrates on half-highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum x V. angustifolium) cultivars ‘Northblue’ and ‘Northcountry’ – Acta Horticulturae  574: 281-286.

Paal, T. , Paal, J. 2002. Rehabilitation of milled peat areas by cranberry (Oxycoccus palustris L.) plantations. – In: Proceedings of the International Peat Symposium: Peat in horticulture. Saarijärvi, Saarijärven Offset Oy, 280-282.

Noormets, M., Karp, K., Starast, M., Paal, T. 2002. Väetamise mõjust ahtalehise mustika (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.) seemikute saagikujunemisele viljakandvas istanduses ammendatud freesturbaväljal. – Agraarteadus 13(5): 293-303. The influence of fertilization on the production of low-bush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.) seedlings on opencast peat pits. In Estonian   with English summary.

Paal, T., Karp, K., Starast, M.  2003. Hariliku pohla ja ahtalehise mustika seemne idanemisest ja ahtalehise mustika seemikute väetamisest.  – Metsanduslikud uurimused XXXVIII: 125–133. About lingonberry and low-bush blueberry seed germination and blueberry seedlings fertilisation. In Estonian   with English summary.

Noormets, M, Karp, K., Paal, T. 2003. Recultivation of opencast peat pits with Vaccinium culture in Estonia. 2003 Fourth International Conference on Ecosystems and Sustanaible Development ECOSUD 2003. Siena, Italy.  1105 – 1114.

Paal, T. 2003. Use of the biodiversity of genus Vaccinium for breeding. – In: Heikkilä, R., Lindholm, T. (eds.). Biodiversity and Conservation of Boreal Nature. Proceedings of the Nature Reserve Friendship 10 years anniversary symposium. - The Finnish Environment 485: 241-244.

Starast, M., Karp, K., Moor, U., Vool, E., Paal, T. 2003. Effect  of fertilization on soil pH and growth of lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.). – 14th International Symposium of Fertilizers, “Fertilizers in context with resource management in agriculture”. June 22-25, 2003, Debrecen, Hungary. Proceedings of the Conference, Vol. II, 628-635.

Paal, T., Starast, M., Karp, K. 2003. Walyw wapnowania na azrost borowki niskiej rosnacej na torfowiskach wysokich. - Konferencja „Uprawne rosliny wrzosowate“, Skiernewice, Polskich, 71-76. On effect of liming on the development of low–bush blueberry plants on milled peat fields. In Polish with English summary.

Paal, T., Banner, A. 2003. Trichoderma viride enchances the growth of lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) stem cuttings. - Canadian Journal of Plant Science 83 (4): 943-945.

Karp, K., Mänd, M., Starast, M, Paal, T. 2004. Nectar production of Rubus arcticus. Agronomy Research 2(1): 57– 62.

Paal, T., Starast, M., Karp, K. 2004. Influence of different fertilisers and fertilising frequency on the developing of seedlings of Vaccinium  angustifolium. Botanica Lithuanica 10(2): 135 – 140.

Noormets, M., Köster,T., Karp,K., Paal,T., Tõnutare,T. 2004. The recultivation of opencast peatland in Estonia. Proceedings of the 12th International Peat Congress. Wise Use of Peatlands. 1195–1201.

Paal, Starast, M., Karp, K., Paal, T., Värnik, R., Vool, E. 2005. Kultuurmustikas ja selle kasvatamine Eestis. Eesti Põllumajandusülikool, Tartu. 65 lk. Blueberries and their cultivation in Estonia.

Starast, M., Paal, T., Vool, E., Karp, K., Noormets, M. 2005. Effect of hexazinone in young low-bush blueberry plantation. – Proceedings of the scientific international conference Kultura brusnitshnik jagodnikov: itogi i perspektivy. August 15-19, 2005, Minsk, Smeltok, 85-89.



International scientific conference “Cultivation of Vacciniacea: results and perspective”. Belorus, Minsk. 15-18 August 2005.
ISHI 8th International Symposium on Vaccinium Culture. Portugal- Spain. 3th - 8th May 2004.
International conference "Cultivation of Vacciniacea". Poland, Skierniewice. 22–24 May 2003.
International Peat symposium Peat in Horticulture. Pärnu, Estonia. 3-6 September 2002.
International conference "Small fruit in the wild and culture".  Kaunas-Vilnius, Lithuania. 20–22 August 2002.
International Mire Conservation Group, Excursion and Symposium, France. 10–22 July 2002.
International conference "Problems of rational utilization and reproduction of berry plants in boreal forests on the eve of the 21st century". Gomel, Beloruss. 11–15 September 2000.
Nature Reserve Frendship 10 years anniversary symposium "Biodiversity and conservation of boreal nature". Kuhmo, Finland. 16–19 October 2000.
ISHI Seventh International Symposium on Vaccinium Culture”. Chillan, Chile. 4–9 Dezember 2000.
International conference "Cultivation of Vacciniacea" . Poland, Skierniewice. 22–23 June 1999.
AIC `99. Halifax, Canada. 1999.
International Workshop Sustainable development of non-wood goods and benefits from boreal and cold temperate forests. Joensuu, Finland. 18–22 January 1998.
International conference "Wild berry culture: an exchange of Western and Eastern experiences". Tartu, Estonia. 10–13 August 1998.
International symposium on in-situ conservation of plant genetic diversity. Antalya, Turkey. 4–8 November 1996.
3rd Finnish- Soviet Congress on Products Gatherd from Nature. Finland, Oulu. 12–17 August 1991.
XX consilium-excursio botanicorum rerum baltiae. Saaremaa, Estonia. Juny 1990.



Scientific journal “Small Fruits Review” (USA), board of reviewers
Estonian Naturalist`s Society, member


Malaysia, National parks on Borneo island and Bruney  16 January-21 February 2005

Thailand, From Golden Triangle to Malaysian border, 16 November–21 December 2003

Thailand, Hua-Hin area`s national parks, 22 November–6 December 2002
USA, Alaska and Kodiak island, botanical excursion to Vaccinium- site-types, 3–10 September 2000
USA, Sierra Nevada, Josemit National Park. 11– 20 September 2000
Canada, Nova Scottia, New Brunswick, excursions to lowbush blueberry sites. 1999, 2000, 2001
Finland, Lapland, hiking in Pallas-Ounas tunturi. September 1996
Norvay, botanical excursion to different plant site types, 10 days 1994
Sweden, botanical excursion in South Sweden, 10 days 1992
Russia, Sahhalin, Kunashir, botanical excursion with students of Tartu University, 1 month, August 1991
Russia, Kaukasus, Teberda Nature Reserve, 1981
Russia, Baikal area, expedition in mountain forests, August 1-30, 1980